The company was founded by Werner von Siemens, German engineer working on the telegraph on 1st October 1847.

Soleil, Henri

Jean-Baptiste-François Soleil (1798-1878) ingénieur-opticien français.

Spindler & Hoyer

In 1898 Julius Adolf Hoyer (1874-1943) joined with August Spindler (1870-1927) to
establish the optical company of Spindler & Hoyer in Göttingen. The range of products of
Spindler & Hoyer was unusually extensive, including many sorts of instruments. During
the two world wars, it was the main supplier of binoculars to the German army. This
successful optical design and manufacturing company still exists today, but with a new name - Linos AG. The name change occurred after management acquisitions of other high-quality optical makers by Spindler & Hoyer.

Troughton and Simms

Troughton & Simms, London
Edward Troughton (1753-1835) went into partnership with William Simms (1793-1860) in 1826. They made big meridian circles, among them this of Greenwich, in 1851.


USG stand for US Gauges. Founded in 1904.

Vafeiadis, Theodoros

Theodoros Vafeiadis established his photographic studio in 1896 next to the Sirceci train station. He was a very active photographer and the first to ask the Lumiere brothers to send him a movie camera as early as 1896, but they refused. The fact that Vafeiadis printed at least one set of cards with optical illusions shows both his love for innovation and the interest that people of that era shared for scientific issues.

Weichert, William

William Weichert, Cardiff
Special appointment H.M. Emperor of Austria

Zeiss, Carl

Carl Zeiss (11 September 1816 – 3 December 1888) was a German maker of optical instruments commonly known for the company he founded in 1846 in a small town of Jena in Germany. The company Carl Zeiss Jena (now: Carl Zeiss AG) started to design microscopes. Later he and Ernst Abbe co-operated in manufacturing optical lenses with less colour and spherical distortion than the other lenses of this time.