Koenig, Rudolph

Koenig was born in Königsberg (Province of Prussia), and studied at the University of Königsberg in his native town.

About 1852 he went to Paris and in 1858 he started business on his own account. He called himself a "maker of musical instruments," but the instrument for which his name is best known is the tuning fork. Koenig's work speedily gained a high reputation among physicists for accuracy and general excellence. From this business Koenig derived his livelihood for the rest of his life. One of his last catalogs had 262 different items.


Andres Krüss, German optician maried the daughetr of the optician Edmund Gabory (trained in London by Jesse Ramsden) and run the Gabory's company. He established his own company in 1844. After his death, his widow run the company and handed it over to her sons Edmund and William in 1851.

Lambrecht, Wilhelm

Wilhelm Lambrecht, Göttingen
Meteorological instruments maker since 1859


Founded in Paris.


Lerebours made telescopes since 1799. In 1844 the firm constructed a big refractor of 38cm for the Observatory of Paris (then the biggest in the world with this of Poulkovo Observatory). Lerebours is mentioned by Jules Verne in his book "From Earth to the Moon".

Merz, Jacob

Jacob Merz, Munich
Georg Merz (1793-1867 was Fraunhofer pupil and constructed some of the most famous 19th c. telescopes. After his death Merz factory was runned by his son Sigmund and after him his nephew Jacob

Morin - Secrétan

H. Morin - Secrétan
Marc François Louis Secrétan (1804 – 1867), professor of mathematics in Lausanne settled to Paris in 1844 where he became a partner of the instruments maker Lerebours. The enterprise was continued by his sons and after 1955 by thirds.

Nardin, Ulysse

Ulysse Nardin, Switzerland
Ulysse Nardin (1823-1876) founded the firm in 1846

Paul-Gustave Froment

Paul-Gustave Froment, born in Paris on 3 March 1815 and died in Paris on 10 February 1865, is a French inventor and mechanic.

A former student of the Lycée Louis-le-Grand and then of the École Polytechnique, he worked, among other things, on the telegraph with written and keyboard signals, the loom, Hughes printing machine, electric motors and With Léon Foucault on the gyroscope. He also made the pendulum of the latter.

He collaborated with Arago, Pouillet, Fizeau, Desains and Lissajous.